Japanese encephalitis is a viral brain infection that’s spread through mosquito bites. It’s most common in rural areas in southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, but is very rare in travellers. The virus is found in pigs and birds, and is passed to mosquitoes when they bite infected animals.
What is the cause of Japanese encephalitis?
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe disease. JE is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes in Asia and the western Pacific. JE virus is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
What does Japanese encephalitis do?
Most people infected with JE do not have symptoms or have only mild symptoms. However, a small percentage of infected people develop inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), with symptoms including sudden onset of headache, high fever, disorientation, coma, tremors and convulsions. About 1 in 4 cases are fatal.
Who is at risk for Japanese encephalitis?
The people most at risk are those who live and work in rural areas, such as on pig farms and in rice fields, where the condition is widespread. Around 75% of cases involve children under the age of 15. Find out more about the causes of Japanese encephalitis, and which countries have the highest risk.
Which virus cause a Japanese encephalitis?
Japanese encephalitis is caused by a flavivirus, which can affect both humans and animals. The virus is passed from animals to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Pigs and wading birds are the main carriers of the Japanese encephalitis virus.
Is Japanese Encephalitis a virus?
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). While most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs.
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Is Japanese encephalitis in the United States?
JEV transmission occurs mainly in rural agricultural areas, but occasional human cases occur in urban areas. Japanese encephalitis (JE) in persons who have traveled or lived overseas is diagnosed infrequently in the United States, with only four cases identified from 1992 (when a JE vaccine was first licensed in the …
Can Japanese Encephalitis be treated?
No specific treatments have been found to benefit patients with JE, but hospitalization for supportive care and close observation is generally required. Treatment is symptomatic. Rest, fluids, and use of pain relievers and medication to reduce fever may relieve some symptoms.
Is there a vaccine for encephalitis?
Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (manufactured as IXIARO) is the only JE vaccine licensed and available in the United States. This vaccine was approved in March 2009 for use in people aged 17 years and older and in May 2013 for use in children 2 months through 16 years of age.
How long does Japanese encephalitis?
Once you have received both doses, you are protected against Japanese encephalitis for 12-24 months. After one year, you require a booster.
Which mosquito causes encephalitis?
Japanese encephalitis. Japanese Encephalitis is primarily a rural disease. Transmitted by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus via a vertebrate host, mostly pigs or wild birds.